The side effect profile of Clozapine in real world data of three large mental hospitals
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Ehtesham Iqbal, Risha Govind, Alvin Romero, Olubanke Dzahini, Matthew Broadbent, Robert Stewart, Tanya Smith, Chi-Hun Kim, Nomi Werbeloff, Richard J.B. Dobson, Zina M. Ibrahim. The side effect profile of Clozapine in real world data of three large mental hospitals. PLOS ONe. Jan 2020
Objective: Mining the data contained within Electronic Health Records (EHRs) can potentially generate a greater understanding of medication effects in the real world, complementing what we know from Randomised control trials (RCTs). We Propose a text mining approach to detect adverse events and medication episodes from the clinical text to enhance our understanding of adverse effects related to Clozapine, the most effective antipsychotic drug for the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but underutilised due to concerns over its side effects. Material and Methods: We used data from de-identified EHRs of three mental health trusts in the UK (>50 million documents, over 500,000 patients, 2835 of which were prescribed Clozapine). We explored the prevalence of 33 adverse effects by age, gender, ethnicity, smoking status and admission type three months before and after the patients started Clozapine treatment. We compared the prevalence of adverse effects with those reported in the Side Effects Resource (SIDER) where possible. Results: Sedation, fatigue, agitation, dizziness, hypersalivation, weight gain, tachycardia, headache, constipation and confusion were amongst the highest recorded Clozapine adverse effect in the three months following the start of treatment. Higher percentages of all adverse effects were found in the first month of Clozapine therapy. Using a significance level of (p< 0.05) out chi-square tests show a significant association between most of the ADRs in smoking status and hospital admissions and some in gender and age groups. Further, the data was combined from three trusts, and chi-square tests were applied to estimate the average effect of ADRs in each monthly interval. Conclusion: A better understanding of how the drug works in the real world can complement clinical trials and precision medicine.