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dc.contributor.authorCipriani, Andrea
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Tanya
dc.identifier.citationIoannis Bakolis , Robert Stewart , David Baldwin , Jane Beenstock , Paul Bibby , Matthew Broadbent , Rudolf Cardinal, Shanquan Chen, Karthik Chinnasamy, Andrea Cipriani, Simon Douglas, Philip Horner, Caroline A Jackson, Ann John , Dan W Joyce , Sze Chim Lee , Jonathan Lewis , Andrew McIntosh, Neil Nixon, David Osborn , Peter Phiri, Shanaya Rathod, Tanya Smith , Rachel Sokal , Rob Waller , Sabine Landau. Changes in daily mental health service use and mortality at the commencement and lifting of COVID-19 'lockdown' policy in 10 UK sites: a regression discontinuity in time design. BMJ Open . 2021 May 26;11(5):e049721en
dc.descriptionOpen Access - freely availableen
dc.description.abstractObjectives: To investigate changes in daily mental health (MH) service use and mortality in response to the introduction and the lifting of the COVID-19 'lockdown' policy in Spring 2020. Design: A regression discontinuity in time (RDiT) analysis of daily service-level activity. Setting and participants: Mental healthcare data were extracted from 10 UK providers. Outcome measures: Daily (weekly for one site) deaths from all causes, referrals and discharges, inpatient care (admissions, discharges, caseloads) and community services (face-to-face (f2f)/non-f2f contacts, caseloads): Adult, older adult and child/adolescent mental health; early intervention in psychosis; home treatment teams and liaison/Accident and Emergency (A&E). Data were extracted from 1 Jan 2019 to 31 May 2020 for all sites, supplemented to 31 July 2020 for four sites. Changes around the commencement and lifting of COVID-19 'lockdown' policy (23 March and 10 May, respectively) were estimated using a RDiT design with a difference-in-difference approach generating incidence rate ratios (IRRs), meta-analysed across sites. Results: Pooled estimates for the lockdown transition showed increased daily deaths (IRR 2.31, 95% CI 1.86 to 2.87), reduced referrals (IRR 0.62, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.70) and reduced inpatient admissions (IRR 0.75, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.83) and caseloads (IRR 0.85, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.91) compared with the pre lockdown period. All community services saw shifts from f2f to non-f2f contacts, but varied in caseload changes. Lift of lockdown was associated with reduced deaths (IRR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66), increased referrals (IRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.60) and increased inpatient admissions (IRR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.42) and caseloads (IRR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.12) compared with the lockdown period. Site-wide activity, inpatient care and community services did not return to pre lockdown levels after lift of lockdown, while number of deaths did. Between-site heterogeneity most often indicated variation in size rather than direction of effect. Conclusions: MH service delivery underwent sizeable changes during the first national lockdown, with as-yet unknown and unevaluated consequencesen
dc.description.sponsorshipSupported by the NIHRen
dc.subjectMental Health Servicesen
dc.titleChanges in daily mental health service use and mortality at the commencement and lifting of COVID-19 'lockdown' policy in 10 UK sites: a regression discontinuity in time designen

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